– King Hassan II of Morocco dies after a thirty-eight year reign. – King Hussein of Jordan, viewing the PLO’s increasing power and influence among his Palestinian subjects as a threat to his regime, orders his forces to attack Palestinian militants in refugee camps. It includes provisions for the establishment of a permanent Palestinian self-rule. The name Libya had previously been used by the Greeks to refer to a larger section of North Africa. For more perspectives on this issue listen to the interview with Rachid Aadnani. By the spring of 1948, more than 400,000 Arabs will have fled their land or been expelled. As a result of the Accords, Egypt begins to receive economic and military aid from the United States, as both a reward for the peace treaty and a compensation for the billions of dollars in economic aid that Egypt used to receive from the oil-rich Arab countries. In the early years of the Nasser regime, the Muslim Brotherhood is viewed favorably by Egypt’s leadership, but as their opposition to government policies increases, the Muslim Brothers will be forcibly repressed and their organization banned. – On September 1st, Colonel Mu’ammar Al-Qadhafi leads a military coup that overthrows the Libyan King Idris. Defense Minister Ariel Sharon will be forced to resign in 1983 after a commission of inquiry finds him indirectly responsible for failing to take action to prevent the massacre. A High State Council is set up to govern the country until a new president can be appointed. The Algeciras Conference, organized with the help of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, prevents war between France and Germany over colonial rights in Morocco. However, for most Palestinians, the Oslo II accords mark the beginning of widespread disillusionment with the peace process, as their living conditions worsen substantially after the signing of the accords. The riots, which soon spread to other major cities in Algeria, are harshly repressed, at the cost of the lives of hundreds of young people. – Hassan II becomes king of Morocco after the death of his father, Muhammad V. Imam Muhammad al-Badr is overthrown by Yemeni army officers less then a week after assuming power following his father’s death. Los acontecimientos más importantes de la célula. The armed clashes over border disputes with the Saudis will continue for decades. – In November, an Islamic radical Juhayman al-Oteibi and a band of armed followers seize control of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, charging the Saudi royal family with un-Islamic behavior and allowing Western influence to permeate society. Despite the violence and hardship visited on both nations by their conflict, there will be no significant border changes. – UN Resolutions 731 and 748 impose sanctions on Libya for its alleged role in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, and for the bombing of a French UTA plane that exploded over Niger. 18th Century. -Anti-Apartheid activist Nelson Mandela is jailed in South Africa until 1990. King Farouq goes into exile in Italy, where he will die a few years later. – Hussein Ibn Talal, grandson of the assassinated King Abdullah, is declared King of Jordan at age sixteen. Death of Ayatollah Khomeini, the political and spiritual leader of Iran since the 1979 revolution. See video here. – The beginning of the Intifada (uprising) in Palestine catches Israel (and perhaps even the PLO) off-guard. In December, Arafat announces that the PNC recognizes Israel as a state and condemns terrorism in all its forms — including state terrorism, i.e, that being perpetrated by Israel. The death of al-Assad is expected to bring about more political openness, but his son quickly assumes the tight control his father had exercised on the country. A series of military victories moves the Taliban, a radical Islamist movement in Afghanistan, closer to power in Kabul. Syria’s Ba’ath party seizes power in a coup. Vast numbers of Armenians are uprooted from Anatolia and forced to migrate into Syria. In accordance with their new status as distinct territorial entities, the new countries establish armies and adopt flags and anthems. – Transjordan is renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Jordan , which is officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. A 32-country international coalition, led by the United States and including some Arab forces, gathers 500,000 soldiers in Saudi Arabia in preparation for a military action to push the Iraqi forces out of Kuwait. – Birth of the Lebanese lutist Marcel Khalifa, one of the most prominent composers and performers of modern Arabic music. France and the United States are critical of the accord, the main purpose of which is to boost the Libyan and Moroccan positions in regional political maneuverings. History, map and timeline of the Middle East in 2005 CE. – Yasser Arafat and other Palestinian leaders return to Jericho in the West Bank, as stipulated by the Oslo I agreement, and create the Palestinian Authority, which will assume administrative and security control over the areas evacuated by Israel in the West Bank and Gaza. The first contacts the U.S. had with the Middle East go back to the late 18th century when immediately after achieving independence, the American administration sought to negotiate peace treaties with the North African states with the objective of securing safe passage for American ships to the Mediterranean. All three invade Egypt in an attempt to regain control of the canal and to topple Nasser; they will ultimately fail to achieve their objectives, due mainly to pressures from the United States and the Soviet Union. The Ba’th Party is founded in Damascus under the leadership of Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Bitar. Jordan got its independence in the 25th May 1946 , and since that time it became the Hashimite kingdom of Jordan. The international community condemns the invasion, and on August 6th strict economic sanctions are imposed. – Moroccan Sultan Mohammed V returns from exile in triumph after being deposed by the French in 1953. The war between Iraq and Iran, which began in 1980, also reached a conclusion. – Saad Zaghlul founds the Egyptian nationalist party Wafd, which demands greater national autonomy, a constitutional government, control over the Suez Canal, and more civil rights. Born on November 14, 1889, poor and blind from a young age, he became best known as a novelist. The PLO apparatus and leadership are expelled from Amman and forced to relocate to Beirut, in Lebanon. Published. – Israeli troops seize the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt. However, with the collapse of Léon Blum’s Popular Front government in France in 1938, the treaties will never be ratified and France’s heavy-handed occupation of both countries continues. Faysal, the son of al-Sharif Hussein, becomes King of Iraq with the support of Great Britain, which controls the new country under the mandate system. A Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA) is set up on September 19th. 1789 – Beginning already in the eighteenth century, rulers of British India began to make deals, sign treaties with Persian Gulf emirates like Kuwait and Muscat, supposedly vassals of the fading Ottoman Empire. However, many observers indicate that this modification does little to lessen the hardships imposed on the Iraqi people by the sanctions regime. President Anwar Sadat of Egypt visits Jerusalem. The war had been conducted with the utmost ferocity on both sides. The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon (GT) Mehmet Ali, Ismail, and the Development of Egypt (SH) 19th Century Middle East 19th century Egypt was largely the creation of Mehmet Ali Mehmet Ali and his descendants, acting as Ottoman governors of Egypt, who created the basic World War I begins. Following this meeting, the League of Nations awards a mandate over Syria to France, and a mandate over Iraq and Palestine to Great Britain. Six months later, on June 29th, President Boudiaf is assassinated by one of his security guards during a public meeting in the eastern city of Annaba. Before tracing the rise of British prominence in the Middle East after 1798, it is important to note the historical antecedents of Britain's involvement in the region as well as the political and economic condition of the Ottoman Empire and Iran on the eve of Britain's ascendance. – The Shah of Iran is ousted by a popular rebellion led by Ayatollah Khomeini, who assumes leadership of the new Islamic Republic of Iran on his return from exile in France. General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, the council’s chairman, become president of Iraq. The army replaces him with Colonel Chadli Bendjedid. Click here for video. The Urban Social History of the Middle East, 1750–1950 is an ambitious attempt to write a comprehensive account of 200 years of Middle East history from a social history perspective. The potential threat of a regime overthrow by religious militants, as in Iran, prompts President Mubarak to adopt martial law and to use military tribunals to try Sadat’s assassins and their sympathizers. Italy, desperate to acquire the prestige associated with colonial possessions, invades the Ottoman province of Tripoli (in present-day Libya). Outbreak of the Six-Day War, following the intensification of border clashes between Israeli and Syrian forces. Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam, the popular leader of a Palestinian Islamic resistance movement, is assassinated by the British police after his group is accused of killing a Jewish policeman. Egypt and Syria join forces to form the United Arab Republic (UAR), which was approved by popular referendum in both countries. Pierre Gemayel, a Maronite Christian, becomes leader of the Phalange party, a right-wing militant Christian group in Lebanon. This is a unique event in Morocco’s modern history, being the first time the opposition has been allowed to lead the government. – Mustapha Kemal (Ataturk), a former Young Turk and hero of the Ottoman army, proclaims Turkey a republic. linea del tiempo generación de las computadoras. Spanish control over Northern Morocco is also officially recognized. Islamist militants in the Egyptian army assassinate President Sadat during a military parade commemorating the October 1973 War. 1968: Laos & Cambodia: U.S. starts secret bombing campaign against targets along the Ho Chi Minh trail in the sovereign nations of Cambodia and Laos. An ailing and mentally incompetent President Habib Bourguiba is ousted in Tunisia by his prime minister Zine al-Abidin Ben Ali, who seizes the reins of government for himself and will rule Tunisia with an iron fist. The state, while only a small principality (beylik) durin 1926 April - Reza Khan crowned Reza Shah Pahlavi. Prior to his death, Sadat had angered many segments of the Egyptian population by imprisoning thousands of intellectuals, writers, and Muslim and Christian clerics. Although the end of his rule was marked by a few steps towards political opening and acknowledgement of human rights, King Hassan had largely ruled Morocco with a strict authoritarianism, crushing political dissent and allowing only occasional truces with the opposition. Israeli leaders ask for help from U.S. President Richard Nixon, who immediately orders a massive airlift of military equipment. These sanctions will have a devastating effect on the Iraqi economy. The Middle East since the beginning of the 20th century Constructed from the ruins of the Ottoman Empire after the first World War, the current map of contemporary Arab states in the Middle East resulted from the Great Game played out by the European powers during the 19th century. Jordan got its independence in the 25th May 1946 , and since that time it became the Hashimite kingdom of Jordan. The Iran–Iraq War (also known as the First Persian Gulf War and by various other names) was an armed conflict between the armed forces of Iraq and Iran, lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the longest conventional war of the 20th century. 2000s. He became emperor in 1930, but it wasn't until 1935 that he came to worldwide prominence, following a key address at the League of Nations. 19th Century. However, two main radical Islamist groups remain active and continue their killing and destruction: al-Jama’at al-Islamiyya al-Moussalaha (Armed Islamic Groups, known as GIA), and the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat known as GSPC). For video footage click here. He will remain president and supreme ruler of Syria and the Ba’ath Party until his death in 2000. Thousands of young men and women from the refugee camps join al-Fatah, and Arafat becomes a major player on the Middle East scene. – In May, Libya sends a delegation to Israel for pilgrimage to the al-Aqsa mosque. 17th Century. Called capitula… The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence. Abdul Aziz’s victories across the Arabian Peninsula end the rule of the Hashemite family; al-Sharif Hussein is the last Hashemite to rule in Hijaz. 1600s. This, and along with it the entire productive economy of the region, reaches a level which it will not match until the 20th century. However, the Arab revolt he calls for in 1916 receives support only among the few tribes loyal to him. Egyptian dispatches troops to support the new socialist republican regime, but they are met by the fierce resistance of royalist Yemeni tribal forces, which are themselves supported by Saudi Arabia, Iran and Jordan. The Middle East is the territory that comprises today's Egypt, the Persian Gulf states, Iran, Iraq, Palestine, Cyprus and Northern Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Gaza Strip, UAE, & Yemen. The Middle East with its particular characteristics was not to emerge until the late second millenniumAD. Oil is discovered in Iran. 7 January 2019. It also imposes temporary limits on Jewish migration to Palestine. The culture has been identified as one of the earliest divisions of the Stone Age era characterized by tools such as flake tools, microliths, cleavers and bifacial hand axes. For video footage from this time, click here. As the timeline below, we are introducing some remarkable events at Europe and Middle East during the Medieval periods. – In Jordan, King Hussein declares martial law. 1909 - Tel Aviv founded near Jaffa. – Crown Prince Farouq of Egypt ascends to the throne following the death of his father, King Fouad. Iraq is shaken by a pro-German coup. Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein , was born in 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) . 1930s - White City built. The post-World War II era marks a shift in the emigration patterns of Arabs to the United States. World War II ends with an Allied victory and the establishment of the United Nations, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund. 1938 - Tel Aviv Zoo opens. Palestinian guerrillas from the Black September organization take 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team hostage at the Munich Olympic Games. – East and West Pakistan (later Bangladesh) erupt into civil war. 1800s. The liberal and reformist cleric Hojjat ul-Islam Sayyid Khatami is elected President of Iran by a landslide victory. – Tunisia gains independence from France on March 20th. – Algerian novelist and filmmaker Assia Djebar publishes her first novel, La Soif (The Thirst) . Al-Qassam’s death causes an uproar throughout Palestine and other Arab countries, possibly contributing to the bloody revolt of 1936. His electoral victory is received with suspicion because all of the other candidates pulled out of the elections when the government refused to investigate fraud allegations. Make educational timelines or create a timeline for your company website. The indigenous population, led by the Polisario Front, with backing from other countries in the region begins an armed struggle for an independent Sahrawi state. An international meeting attended by the prime ministers of Great Britain, France, and Italy, as well as representatives from Japan, Greece and Belgium, is held on April 19th-26th in San Remo, Italy, to decide the fate of territories formerly under Ottoman control. – French forces repress a massive demonstration for independence in the eastern Algerian towns of Setif and Kherrata. The United Arab Emirates is declared an independent state under the leadership of Abu Dhabi’s ruler, Sheikh Zayid Ben Sultan Al Nahayan. -Mao Zedong declares the formation of the People’s Republic of China. This social welfare movement receives support from Israel. All Arab oil-producing nations decide to impose an oil embargo on the United States and the European countries that support Israel. In the decade to come, close to 200,000 people will be killed in a period marked by terror attacks against both security personnel and innocent civilians, and by the assassinations of intellectuals, artists, politicians, and foreigners.