and by acting as a vector of viruses such as Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus, which have been reported in Florida in the last five years. 1,5. St. Paul, MN: APS,. Mild foliar yellowing on a watermelon leaf caused by cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus infection. Severe golden mosaic on leaves and mosaic and deformation on fruits are observed in … In addition, ELISA can be used to identify the antibody specific to the antigen of the virus as well. Watermelon should be planted in full sun and heavy feeders. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Plant Viruses Online Database on Watermelon Mosaic 2, Mosaic Virus Disease of Vine Crops Fact Sheet,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ring spots on watermelon caused by Watermelon mosaic virus. Watermelon mosaic virus infects legumes like clover. Transmitted by aphids; virus has an extensive host range; can be mechanically transmitted via tools etc. 37: 247. Baker. (1996). Prevention is also hard: you can’t take your squash plant to CVS for a flu shot, or rather a watermelon mosaic virus vaccination. 1 F; Kheyr-Pour et al., 2000). Aphids can be very damaging as they are the vector for mosaic viruses. Yellow mottling on leaves; dark brown lesions on leaves; leaves curling inwards; Spread by airborne spores and water splash, Discolored stem tissue caused by Fusarium infection, Symptoms of fusarium wilt in a watermelon field, Wilting plants; wilting confined to one or more vines; foliage has a dull gray-green appearance and turns yellow as the disease progresses; vascular tissue has a red discoloration, Disease can be spread through infected seed or via contaminated water and/or equipment, Close-up of gummy stem blight lesion on watermelon leaf margin, Gummy stem blight lesions on watermelon foliage, Gummy stem blight lesions on watermelon stem, Symptoms of gummy stem blight on watermelon stems and leaves, Round or irregular brown lesions with faint concentric rings on cotyledons; brown or white lesions on crown and stems; soft, circular brown lesions on fruit; lesions on stems and fruit may be oozing an amber colored sticky substance, Fungus can be spread b infected seed, air currents or water splash; survives on plant debris in soil; disease emergence is favored by warm, wet conditions, Symptoms of powdery mildew on watermelon leaves, Reddish or bronze appearance of older leaves; obvious patches of white powdery growth on leaves, Disease emergence favored by dry weather and high relative humidity, Symptoms generally appear after fruit set; chlorotic leaves which develop necrotic areas; leaves collapsing; symptoms only on one side of vine; discoloration of vascular tissue in roots, Fungus can survive in soil for many years; disease emergence favored by cool or mild weather in Spring, Small water-soaked lesions on leaves which expand between leaf veins and become angular in shape; in humid conditions, lesions exude a milky substance which dries to form a white crust on or beside lesions; as the disease progresses, lesions turn tan and may have yellow/green edges; the centers of the lesions dry and may drop out leaving a hole in the leaf, Spread through infected seed, splashing rain, insects and movement of people between plants; bacterium overwinters in crop debris and can survive for 2.5 years, Symptoms of bacterial fruit blotch on watermelon fruit, Symptoms of bacterial fruit blotch on watermelon foliage, Small water-soaked lesions on top or sides of fruit which enlarge over surface; lesions on fruit may turn reddish or brown and crack, Spread through infected seed or water splash; disease emergence favors wet conditions, Foliage turning yellow; secondary shoots begin growing prolifically; stems take on a rigid, upright growth habit; leaves are often small in size and distorted, may appear thickened; flowers are often disfigured and possess conspicuous leafy bracts; fruits are small and pale in color, Disease is transmitted by leafhoppers and can cause huge losses in cucurbit crops, Symptoms first appear on immature fruits as small light brown spots close to the blossom end of the fruit; as fruit grow, the spots enlarge, resulting in dark leathery lesions sunken into the fruit, Watermelon varieties that produce long fruit are more susceptible to blossom-end rot. Squash vein yellowing virus is responsible for a devastating disease of watermelon, known as watermelon … Your local county Extension agent can help with determining potential dis-ease problems. Diseases of watermelon 1. Gummy Stem Blight. This page was last edited on 15 August 2020, at 02:11. Cercospora Leaf Spot. Diseases of watermelon 1. The symptoms of viruses, no matter what host or strain, mainly cause mosaic and rugosity; therefore, there is no accurate way to determine what virus may be the cause of the disease just by looking at the symptoms. 91:509-516. Watermelons can be affected by mildews and viruses that inhibit growth and reduce yields. A large number of viruses have been reported from time to time to infect this crop viz., watermelon mosaic virus-1 [1], watermelon mosaic virus-2 [2], zuchini yellow mosaic virus [3], cucumber mosaic virus [4-9], papaya ring spot virus [10], watermelon chlorotic stunt virus [11] melon necrotic spot virus [12], watermelon silver mottle virus [13], watermelon bud necrosis virus [16] and watermelon curly … Why does a squash plant get a watermelon disease? Watermelon leaf mosaic disease stems from Potyviris, a common virus in cucurbits. You may use , Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Click here to go to the topics page to know more about the crop. Downy Mildew. All of the mosaic viruses can also infect weeds in the cucurbit family. Fruits may be irregular in shape, mottled or … Peas and alfalfa are also affected. It is easily transmitted by workers and on equipment. Physiological effects of Squash vein yellowing virus infection on watermelon. With the exception of SqMV, which is seedborne in melon and transmitted by beetles, the other major viruses are transmitted by several aphid species in a nonpersistent manner. There are several viruses that affect cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, squash, and other members of the cucurbit family. More than 20 viruses have been associated with cucurbits in the US (5,6,7,8,12,13,15). Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) also known as Marrow mosaic virus (Raychaudhuri and Varma, 1975; Varma, 1988), Melon mosaic virus (Iwaki et al., 1984; Komuro, 1962), and until recently Watermelon mosaic virus type 2 (WMV-2),[1] is a plant pathogenic virus[2] that causes viral infection (sometimes referred to as watermelon Mosaic disease) in many different plants. Plant Dis. Print. All Cucurbit species are susceptible to the virus, some cucumber varieties have been developed which have some resistance to the disease and are available in Canada and Europe. Watermelon will yield best if grown in a light, well-draining soil, rich in organic matter and with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0. For each disease and disorder, you will find the common name, the cause, where it occurs, symptoms, and conditions necessary for … Watermelon Foliar Diseases For a larger view and narrative of each disease please click on the photo. Disease Guides. Mosaic virus of watermelon shows up on the leaves initially but persists to spread to the stems and fruit. Occurrence of cucurbit viruses on field grown melon and watermelon in the Thrace region of Turkey. 2. Because of this, companies that have developed kits that are able to identify the WMV-2 virus as well as other viruses [1]. Besides the preventative use of insecticides, the application of mineral oil sprays has been shown to interfere with virus transmission and can be an effective control (Zitter, 1996). WmCSV causes a severe disease of watermelon characterized by vein clearing, chlorotic mottling, stunting, and complete yellowing of the plant apex and drastic yield reduction (Fig. Most common viral diseases of cucurbits in Illinois are cucumber mosaic (Cucumber mosaic virus), papaya ringspot (Papaya ringspot virus), squash mosaic (Squash mosaic virus), watermelon mosaic (Watermelon mosaic virus), and zucchini yellow mosaic (Zucchini yellow mosaic virus). As it grows, these spots expand and turn black or gray and new sunken areas may appear on your fruit. Iwaki, M., Honda, Y., Hanada, K., Tochihara, H., Yonaha, T., Hokama, K. and Yokoyama, T. (1984). Tobacco Ring Spot Virus. [7] Some of the more common symptoms are chlorotic rings, leaf rugosity and green mosaic. Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases. One of such kits, called ELISA, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA uses an antibody that specifically recognizes the virus of interest by binding to the antigen created by the plant that is specific to the virus. Webb, D. Achor, P. Roberts, and C.A. Powdery Mildew. Insect pests of watermelon: A number of insect species including caterpillars, mites and thrips can cause damage to the plants but are readily controlled using registered insecticides. For example, watermelon mosaic causes systemic mosaic and occasional leaf malformation in Cucurbita pepo a type of Squash while causing necrotic local lesions, systemic mottling, and necrosis when infecting Pisum sativum (Pea) or mosaic lesions and fruit distortion in Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon). J. Photo: W. M. Wintermantel, USDA-ARS. Leaf symptoms are very difficult to distinguish from other mosaic viruses of Cucurbits/ Severity of symptoms varies depending on the strain of the virus. Aphids pick up the plant virus during probing and transmit it non-persistently to other hosts for a period of time up to a few hours after contact. And wait, watermelon? As the infection progresses, leaves develop mottling and become blistered and distorted. So far, it has been limited to the Sunshine State, but commercial watermelon growers fear that it could spread to other states. Watermelon should be planted in full sun and heavy feeders. The symptoms of CGMM are similar to those of other mosaic virus diseases of melons. The disease can cause symptoms of the fruits of many cucurbits. ELISA has been widely used to identify viruses. First, watermelon and squash are both members of the cucurbit family, along with cucumbers, melons, gourds and other edible and nonedible plants. Adkins, S., S.E. Plant Dis. Seminis disease guides provide descriptions and pictures of the more commonly found diseases and disorders worldwide by species. Halliwell RS, Johnson J, Cotner S (1979) Watermelon mosaic virus disease of squash, watermelon and pumpkin. This virus is transmitted by whiteflies and is a problem only in south Texas (Image 1). Peas and alfalfa are also affected. The virus is more common in temperate regions as well as in the tropics though it has been reported in most countries where cucurbits are grown. 68: 1006. First described on squash in Florida, WMV arose from a unique recombination of genetic material contributed by Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) along with Peanut Stripe virus (PSV). Watermelon mosaic virus can be transmitted in multiple ways including vector transmission or physical interactions of a person or tool, but the primary means of transmission is through aphids. We are fully describe the Watermelon diseases and its treatment , now we small talk about watermelon farming and watermelon fruit climate for Growing requires lots of space, lots of sun, lots of water and lots of nutrients. • Iwaki, M., Honda, Y., Hanada, K., Tochihara, H., Yonaha, T., Hokama, K. and Yokoyama, T. (1984). Seedling mortality in the greenhouse has been another major problem in watermelon. Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV; genus Crinivirus), like CYSDV, is transmitted by at least two biotypes of the sweetpotato whitefly, biotypes B and Q. There is not much genetic material that is resistant to watermelon mosaic virus, however, some resistance has been identified in Cucumis sativus. DISEASES by More Deepali 2. Zitter, T. A., Donald L. Hopkins, and Claude E. Thomas. This publication provides information on the yellowing viruses that can infect watermelon and other cucurbit crops as well as descriptions of the symptoms associated with the diseases caused by those viruses. Watermelons can be affected by mildews and viruses that inhibit growth and reduce yields. The disease occurs infrequently and has been observed mostly in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and papaya ringspot-W (PRSV-W) are found in Connecticut. Plant Disease 97:1137-1148. Incidence of watermelon mosaic virus 2 in Central Florida rarely exceeded 5% during the 1960s and 1970s. The seedling disease symptom was similar to the disease symptom caused by bacterial fruit blotch. Requirements Watermelon is a warm-season crop, requiring lots of sun and good drainage to develop optimally and growing best at temperatures between 18 and 28°C (65–82°F). Look for these common watermelon diseases this summer: Anthracnose – This seed-borne fungus is hard to detect initially, as it may only appear as small spots on your plants and fruits. This host range includes more than 170 different plant species from 27 different families.[3]. [6], Watermelon mosaic virus is best known for causing disease in most cucurbits and some legumes, though experimentally it has been shown to have a broader host range than almost all other potyviruses. They are greedy, rambling vines, like all plants in … There are several common viruses that can affect cucurbits, including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV). Watermelon Diseases Identification. Infected plants may be stunted or have leaves that are mottled, crinkled, or a light green color. 6 Initial symptoms appear on leaves one to two weeks after infection.